How to Implement API Key Authentication in Rails Without Devise

Friday, April 16th 2021

It's gotta be at least once a week that I see somebody on /r/rails or Stack Overflow asking how to implement API key authentication using Ruby on Rails. Most of the time they ask how to do it with the ubiquitous Devise gem, or the accepted answer points them in that direction. And everytime I think to myself, "why is everybody using Devise for something as simple as API key authentication?"

Devise was created to handle browser-based authentication via cookies for run-of-the-mill, non-API, Rails applications. Devise really shines in its simple and secure session management, ready-to-go view and mailer templates, and support for things like SSO and OAuth using OmniAuth.

But API's don't utilize sessions, or views. (Or at least they shouldn't!)

To make matters even more confusing — the Devise repo kind of seems like they don't even recommend using Devise for API-mode apps. Concerning Rails' API-mode, their README states "we still don't know the full extent of [API-mode] compatibility."

So why are people using and recommending Devise for APIs?

I think they're using Devise simply because they are unaware of how easy it is to implement API key authentication without Devise. When it comes to authentication, Ruby on Rails is a batteries-included framework.

Devise is over-kill for an API.

Generating a new Rails API

To kick things off, let's create a new Rails API app:

$ rails new . --api --database postgresql \
--skip-active-storage \
--skip-action-cable

Now that we have a new Rails app in API-mode, excluding a little bit of cruft that we don't need like Active Storage and Action Cable, let's move onto our models.

Creating a user model

First up, we have our User. For that, we'll need a users table. Pretty standard stuff. Let's generate a migration:

$ rails g migration CreateUsers

We'll populate the migration with the following:

class CreateUsers < ActiveRecord::Migration[5.2]
def change
create_table :users do |t|
t.string :email, null: false
t.string :password_digest, null: false
t.timestamps null: false
end
 
add_index :users, :email, unique: true
end
end

Then we'll apply it:

$ rails db:migrate

Lastly, we'll create the actual User model:

class User < ApplicationRecord
has_secure_password
end

Simple enough. Rails has out-of-the-box support for user password authentication using the has_secure_password concern. I run across Rails devs all the time who don't know that, so I figured I'd mention it. Again, You Don't Need Devise™.

Creating an API key model

Moving on, we'll need another model. An ApiKey. So let's go ahead and create the api_keys table as well as the model class.

$ rails g migration CreateApiKeys

Then fill it with the following:

class CreateApiKeys < ActiveRecord::Migration[5.2]
def change
create_table :api_keys do |t|
t.integer :bearer_id, null: false
t.string :bearer_type, null: false
t.string :token, null: false
t.timestamps null: false
end
 
add_index :api_keys, [:bearer_id, :bearer_type]
add_index :api_keys, :token, unique: true
end
end

Note the bearer_id and bearer_type columns, instead of a user_id column. We're going to be defining a polymorphic API key model, meaning not just a User can have an API key. We can get more into multiple "bearers" later, though.

Then we'll apply the migration:

$ rails db:migrate

Next, in the same vein as our user, we'll create the ApiKey model:

class ApiKey < ApplicationRecord
belongs_to :bearer, polymorphic: true
end

Lastly, we'll want to add the API key association to the user model.

class User < ApplicationRecord
+ has_many :api_keys, as: :bearer
+ 
has_secure_password
end

Again, note the as: :bearer option. This ensures that the user, at least from the API key's perspective, is referred to as the API key "bearer."

Verifying our work

Alright — so we have our tables, a User model, and an ApiKey model. What's next? Well, I always like to test things as I go using the Rails console, so let's do that real quick before we dive too deep into things.

$ rails c
> User.create! email: '[email protected]', password: 'secret'
# You don't have bcrypt installed in your application. Please add it to your Gemfile and run bundle install
# Traceback (most recent call last):
# 3: from (irb):3
# 2: from app/models/user.rb:1:in `<main>'
# 1: from app/models/user.rb:4:in `<class:User>'
# LoadError (cannot load such file -- bcrypt)

Oops. It's been awhile since I created a new Rails app, so let's uncomment bcrypt from our Gemfile real quick, run Bundler, then try again.

-# gem 'bcrypt', '~> 3.1.7' #
+gem 'bcrypt', '~> 3.1.7'

Then run Bundler:

$ bundle

Now let's try that again:

$ rails c
> User.create! email: '[email protected]', password: 'secret'
# => #<User id: 1, email: "[email protected]", password_digest: "$2a$10$RAR1bk.3VlusLgAg.tvEbOOI3govZfQg/Xibj0E/GYN...", created_at: "2021-04-16 13:45:30", updated_at: "2021-04-16 13:45:30">

Perfection.

Let's go ahead and test a few more things, like user password authentication, and maybe we can even create a couple API keys, just for kicks.

$ rails c
> zeke = User.first
> zeke.authenticate('secret')
# => #<User id: 1, email: "[email protected]", password_digest: "$2a$10$RAR1bk.3VlusLgAg.tvEbOOI3govZfQg/Xibj0E/GYN...", created_at: "2021-04-16 13:45:30", updated_at: "2021-04-16 13:45:30">
> zeke.authenticate('foo')
# => false
> zeke.api_keys
# => #<ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionProxy []>
> zeke.api_keys.create! token: SecureRandom.hex
# => #<ApiKey id: 1, bearer_id: 1, bearer_type: "User", token: "5c8e4327fd8b2bf3118f82b13890d89d", created_at: "2021-04-16 13:56:42", updated_at: "2021-04-16 13:56:42">
> zeke.api_keys
# => #<ActiveRecord::Associations::CollectionProxy [#<ApiKey id: 1, bearer_id: 1, bearer_type: "User", token: "5c8e4327fd8b2bf3118f82b13890d89d", created_at: "2021-04-16 13:56:42", updated_at: "2021-04-16 13:56:42">]>

Everything looks solid. What's next?

The route to API key authentication

In this example, we're going to be defining 3 routes:

  1. POST /api-keys: to create a new API key i.e. a standard 'login'
  2. DELETE /api-keys: to revoke the current API key i.e. 'logout'
  3. GET /api-keys: to list a user's API keys

Let's open up our config/routes.rb file and plop this in there:

Rails.application.routes.draw do
post '/api-keys', to: 'api_keys#create'
delete '/api-keys', to: 'api_keys#destroy'
get '/api-keys', to: 'api_keys#index'
end

You could probably make this more RESTful by following the standard Rails resources route conventions, but I figured managing API key IDs for the purpose of revocation would be a bit too much for this post.

A concern about API key authentication

What's the concern? Nothing, really. (Update: April 17th, 2021 — well, that was a lie — there are a couple concerns, but we'll touch on them later.)

For now, we're going to be creating a typical Rails concern that allows controllers to require API key authentication:

module ApiKeyAuthenticatable
extend ActiveSupport::Concern
 
include ActionController::HttpAuthentication::Basic::ControllerMethods
include ActionController::HttpAuthentication::Token::ControllerMethods
 
attr_reader :current_api_key
attr_reader :current_bearer
 
# Use this to raise an error and automatically respond with a 401 HTTP status
# code when API key authentication fails
def authenticate_with_api_key!
@current_bearer = authenticate_or_request_with_http_token &method(:authenticator)
end
 
# Use this for optional API key authentication
def authenticate_with_api_key
@current_bearer = authenticate_with_http_token &method(:authenticator)
end
 
private
 
attr_writer :current_api_key
attr_writer :current_bearer
 
def authenticator(http_token, options)
@current_api_key = ApiKey.find_by token: http_token
 
current_api_key&.bearer
end
end

Like I said, Rails comes batteries-included. By including just a couple core classes, we can take advantage of some useful methods:

  • #authenticate_or_request_with_http_token: authenticate with an HTTP token, otherwise automatically request authentication, i.e. Rails will respond with a 401 Unauthenticated HTTP status code.
  • #authenticate_with_http_token: attempt to authenticate with an HTTP token, but don't raise an error if the token ends up being nil.

In both cases, we're going to be passing in our #authenticator method to handle the API key lookup. Rails will handle the rest. We'll be storing the current API key bearer and the current API key into controller-level instance variables, current_bearer and current_api_key, respectively.

These methods will handle parsing of the Authorization HTTP header. There are multiple HTTP authorization schemes, but these 2 methods will only care about the Bearer scheme. We'll get into others in a second.

An Authorization header for an API key will look something like this:

Authorization: Bearer 5c8e4327fd8b2bf3118f82b13890d89d

This is how your users will likely be interacting with your API.

Real quick, let's verify that our routes are correct:

$ rails routes
# Verb URI Pattern Controller#Action
# POST /api-keys(.:format) api_keys#create
# DELETE /api-keys(.:format) api_keys#destroy
# GET /api-keys(.:format) api_keys#index

Looks good. Onward!

Controlling API key authentication

I know, I know — we've written a lot of code and haven't tested anything in awhile. Let's define an empty controller so that we can start testing our API using curl.

class ApiKeysController < ApplicationController
def index
end
 
def create
end
 
def destroy
end
end

Okay, let's do a quick smoke test of our endpoints using curl:

$ curl -v -X POST http://localhost:3000/api-keys
# < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
$ curl -v -X DELETE http://localhost:3000/api-keys
# < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
$ curl -v -X GET http://localhost:3000/api-keys
# < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content

Good — no 404 or 5xx errors. Now let's add our authenticatable concern to our controller, and define a route that requires an API key and one where an API key is optional:

class ApiKeysController < ApplicationController
+ include ApiKeyAuthenticatable
+ 
+ # Require token authentication for index
+ prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key!, only: [:index]
+ 
+ # Optional token authentication for logout
+ prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key, only: [:destroy]
 
def index
end
 
def create
end
 
def destroy
end
end

Let's re-run our smoke test:

$ curl -v -X POST http://localhost:3000/api-keys
# < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
$ curl -v -X DELETE http://localhost:3000/api-keys
# < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
$ curl -v -X GET http://localhost:3000/api-keys
# < HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized

Notice anything different? Our GET request now responds with a 401 HTTP status code, as intended. Remember — our POST endpoint doesn't require authentication, and authentication is optional for the DELETE endpoint.

Creating our first API key

Everything looks good, so let's go ahead and work on the #create action. As touched on earlier, this is going to be our login endpoint.

class ApiKeysController < ApplicationController
include ApiKeyAuthenticatable
 
# Require API key authentication for index
prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key!, only: [:index]
 
# Optional API key authentication for logout
prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key, only: [:destroy]
 
def index
end
 
def create
+ authenticate_with_http_basic do |email, password|
+ user = User.find_by email: email
+ 
+ if user&.authenticate(password)
+ api_key = user.api_keys.create! token: SecureRandom.hex
+ 
+ render json: api_key, status: :created and return
+ end
end
 
render status: :unauthorized
end
 
def destroy
end
end

Once again, we're going to be utilizing another method provided by Rails to handle the grunt-work of HTTP authentication. Like the previously used method authenticate_with_http_token, the authenticate_with_http_basic will parse the Authorization header. Unlike the token method variant caring about the Bearer scheme, the basic variant only cares about the Basic scheme.

A basic Authorization header will look something like this:

Authorization: Basic [email protected]:secret

The actual email and password values will be base64 encoded, but for example purposes we're omitting that detail. Rails will automatically handle parsing and decoding these values. You Don't Need Devise™.

Now that we've written hundreds of lines of code, let's err… wait. We've only written about 60 lines of application code. A lot of people will make API key authentication sound harder and more complicated than it really is. It's really not that hard, and it's not complicated, because Rails does most of the heavy lifting for us.

Anyways — let's create our first API key:

$ curl -v -X POST http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
# < HTTP/1.1 201 Created
# {
# "id": 2,
# "bearer_id": 1,
# "bearer_type": "User",
# "token": "5d1524c7e2486f98e1b65cbe1cdeb258",
# "created_at": "2021-04-16T15:18:01.709Z",
# "updated_at": "2021-04-16T15:18:01.709Z"
# }

Nice, but before we celebrate, let's make sure a bad password and a bad email are properly rejected with a 401 response, respectively:

$ curl -v -X POST http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
# < HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
$ curl -v -X POST http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
# < HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized

Listing our API keys

Up next, let's work on our #index action. Go ahead and open that controller up again and let's list the API keys of the current_bearer.

class ApiKeysController < ApplicationController
include ApiKeyAuthenticatable
 
# Require API key authentication for index
prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key!, only: [:index]
 
# Optional API key authentication for logout
prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key, only: [:destroy]
 
def index
+ render json: current_bearer.api_keys
end
 
def create
authenticate_with_http_basic do |email, password|
user = User.find_by email: email
 
if user&.authenticate(password)
api_key = user.api_keys.create! token: SecureRandom.hex
 
render json: api_key, status: :created and return
end
end
 
render status: :unauthorized
end
 
def destroy
end
end

Let's try it out:

$ curl -v -X GET http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
-H 'Authorization: Bearer 5d1524c7e2486f98e1b65cbe1cdeb258'
# < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
# [
# {
# "id": 1,
# "bearer_id": 1,
# "bearer_type": "User",
# "token": "5c8e4327fd8b2bf3118f82b13890d89d",
# "created_at": "2021-04-16T13:56:42.181Z",
# "updated_at": "2021-04-16T13:56:42.181Z"
# },
# {
# "id": 2,
# "bearer_id": 1,
# "bearer_type": "User",
# "token": "5d1524c7e2486f98e1b65cbe1cdeb258",
# "created_at": "2021-04-16T15:18:01.709Z",
# "updated_at": "2021-04-16T15:18:01.709Z"
# }
# ]

There they are! Looks good.

Revoking our first API key

So we've got our 2 API keys. Let's revoke 1 of them. To do that, we'll need to work on the #destroy action of our controller. It's gonna be as complicated as the last action we wrote, so prepare yourself:

class ApiKeysController < ApplicationController
include ApiKeyAuthenticatable
 
# Require API key authentication for index
prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key!, only: [:index]
 
# Optional API key authentication for logout
prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key, only: [:destroy]
 
def index
render json: current_bearer.api_keys
end
 
def create
authenticate_with_http_basic do |email, password|
user = User.find_by email: email
 
if user&.authenticate(password)
api_key = user.api_keys.create! token: SecureRandom.hex
 
render json: api_key, status: :created and return
end
end
 
render status: :unauthorized
end
 
def destroy
+ current_api_key&.destroy
end
end

That's all it takes, folks. Now let's test it out by revoking our original API key, the one that we created in the Rails console:

$ curl -v -X DELETE http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
-H 'Authorization: Bearer 5c8e4327fd8b2bf3118f82b13890d89d'
# < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content

We got a No Content status code, but did it actually work? Remember, our DELETE endpoint has optional API key authentication, unlike the list endpoint which requires authentication, so even if an invalid API key was provided, it would still return a 204 No Content status code. Is this ideal? Probably not, but it works to expemlify the 2 different authentication actions.

Let's assert that the API key was revoked, using the Rails console:

$ rails c
> ApiKey.count
# => 1
> ApiKey.find_by token: '5c8e4327fd8b2bf3118f82b13890d89d'
# => nil

Looks like it worked!

To bear or not to bear

Since our API keys are polymorphic, we can have multiple authenticatable models, such as an Admin model, or a SpaceInvader. The sky's the limit, and as long as your code is flexible enough, i.e. it's not expecting a User everywhere a bearer is, you shouldn't have any issues making some obscure model an API key bearer.

Pair this with an authorization gem like Pundit and you'll be golden. I've been running a variant of this for Keygen's API — allowing users, admins, products and licenses to all be authenticatable, each with different permission sets.

(I won't get too deep into the weeds here, but I thought it'd be worth mentioning.)

Wrapping up

That's it. We've implemented a login endpoint where we can generate new API keys, a logout endpoint where we can revoke existing API keys, as well as an endpoint allowing us to list the current user's API keys. From here, adding API key authentication to other controller actions is as simple as adding one of the 2 before_action callbacks.

Some people may raise concern that we're "rolling our own auth" here, but that's actually not true. We're using tools that Rails provides for us out-of-the-box. API key authentication doesn't have to be complex, and you most certainly don't have to use a third-party gem like Devise to implement it.

Also, you certainly don't need JWTs either. But that's an entire other blog post in and of itself. But I digress… for another day, for another day.

You can harden your authentication token scheme by utilizing HMAC digests to protect against timing-attacks and to prevent tokens from being stored in plaintext, but I'll leave that as an exercise to the reader. (Edit: I made a mistake not including the HMAC solution in the original post. Please see update below.)

We've manged to do everything here in under 100 lines of code — 96 to be exact — and that's including the migrations! That's pretty cool if you ask me.

Looking for more? Next, learn how to implement TOTP 2FA using ROTP.


Update: April 17th, 2021

It was brought to my attention shortly after publishing this post that the original code is storing API keys as plaintext in the database, which is true. That fact was (briefly) mentioned at the end of the post, and I originally thought including the solution would complicate the post, but I think I made a mistake excluding it. We should always strive to reflect best security practices when writing technical "how-to" posts, even if that results in more complex code or a longer blog post.

Because the original code stores tokens in plaintext, the code could also be vulnerable to timing attacks. We're going to utilize a secure HMAC function to resolve both of these vulnerabilities.

To sum up, the 2 vulnerabilities are:

  1. Storing API keys as plaintext (a big no-no — these tokens should be treated like passwords.)
  2. Tokens could be vulnerable to timing attacks (yes, even with a database index!)

I'm leaving the original blog post unchanged for transparency.

Patching the vulnerabilities

To start our patch, let's rollback our last migration which created the tokens table. We're going to slightly modify the schema. In a production environment, we'd want to add a new column, populate it, and then remove the old column, but this will suffice for our toy example application.

$ rails db:rollback

Open up our last migration and change the token column to token_digest:

class CreateApiKeys < ActiveRecord::Migration[5.2]
def change
create_table :api_keys do |t|
t.integer :bearer_id, null: false
t.string :bearer_type, null: false
- t.string :token, null: false
+ t.string :token_digest, null: false
t.timestamps null: false
end
 
add_index :api_keys, [:bearer_id, :bearer_type]
- add_index :api_keys, :token, unique: true
+ add_index :api_keys, :token_digest, unique: true
end
end

Then we'll want to re-run the migration:

$ rails db:migrate

Next, we're going to update the ApiKey model to utilize a SHA-256 HMAC function, and also provide a method for authenticating an API key by token.

class ApiKey < ApplicationRecord
+ HMAC_SECRET_KEY = ENV.fetch('API_KEY_HMAC_SECRET_KEY')
+ 
belongs_to :bearer, polymorphic: true
+ 
+ before_create :generate_token_hmac_digest
+ 
+ # Virtual attribute for raw token value, allowing us to respond with the
+ # API key's non-hashed token value. but only directly after creation.
+ attr_accessor :token
+ 
+ def self.authenticate_by_token!(token)
+ digest = OpenSSL::HMAC.hexdigest 'SHA256', HMAC_SECRET_KEY, token
+ 
+ find_by! token_digest: digest
+ end
+ 
+ def self.authenticate_by_token(token)
+ authenticate_by_token! token
+ rescue ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound
+ nil
+ end
+ 
+ # Add virtual token attribute to serializable attributes, and exclude
+ # the token's HMAC digest
+ def serializable_hash(options = nil)
+ h = super options.merge(except: 'token_digest')
+ h.merge! 'token' => token if token.present?
+ h
+ end
+ 
+ private
+ 
+ def generate_token_hmac_digest
+ raise ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid, 'token is required' unless
+ token.present?
+ 
+ digest = OpenSSL::HMAC.hexdigest 'SHA256', HMAC_SECRET_KEY, token
+ 
+ self.token_digest = digest
+ end
end

Here we've defined a few new methods for the ApiKey model:

  • A new virtual attribute called token which holds the plaintext value of our API key's token. This virtual attribute is only available after the model is created.
  • Redefining an API key's serializable_hash attributes, to include the token virtual attribute when present, and to always exclude token_digest.
  • A before_create callback which handles generating an HMAC of the current token before the API key is persisted to the database.
  • Bang and non-bang variants of authenticate_by_token which handles securely looking up an API key by token.

Our HMAC function requires a secret key to be able to compute digests, defined in a new API_KEY_HMAC_SECRET_KEY environment variable. Let's generate a random string with 32 bytes of entropy that we can use for the HMAC secret key:

$ rails c
> SecureRandom.hex(32)
# => febf2568e5f151dc979ebdb84f05633417beeef06b9fb4e32e6c4eea6b121afc

And let's go ahead and set the required environment variable:

$ export API_KEY_HMAC_SECRET_KEY=febf2568e5f151dc979ebdb84f05633417beeef06b9fb4e32e6c4eea6b121afc

Do note that the HMAC secret key should never change. Changing the secret key will invalidate all existing API keys, since we'd no longer be able to authenticate them.

Lastly, we'll want to update the ApiKeyAuthenticatable concern to use our new API key authentication method:

module ApiKeyAuthenticatable
extend ActiveSupport::Concern
 
include ActionController::HttpAuthentication::Basic::ControllerMethods
include ActionController::HttpAuthentication::Token::ControllerMethods
 
attr_reader :current_api_key
attr_reader :current_bearer
 
# Use this to raise an error and automatically respond with a 401 HTTP status
# code when API key authentication fails
def authenticate_with_api_key!
@current_bearer = authenticate_or_request_with_http_token &method(:authenticator)
end
 
# Use this for optional API key authentication
def authenticate_with_api_key
@current_bearer = authenticate_with_http_token &method(:authenticator)
end
 
private
 
attr_writer :current_api_key
attr_writer :current_bearer
 
def authenticator(http_token, options)
- @current_api_key = ApiKey.find_by token: http_token
+ @current_api_key = ApiKey.authenticate_by_token http_token
 
current_api_key&.bearer
end
end

Verifying our patch

First up — let's generate a new API key:

$ curl -v -X POST http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
# < HTTP/1.1 201 Created
# {
# "id": 3,
# "bearer_id": 1,
# "bearer_type": "User",
# "created_at": "2021-04-17T19:44:28.975Z",
# "updated_at": "2021-04-17T19:44:28.975Z",
# "token": "4ff169e0c3e42fd0b60af4f12abae086"
# }

Looks good. The API key's token is correctly being generated, and the raw token value is still being serialized in the JSON response. But let's assert that the token is no longer being stored in plaintext:

$ rails c
> ApiKey.last
# => #<ApiKey id: 3, bearer_id: 1, bearer_type: "User", token_digest: "f2f00166929739413ebe7848306d4be04b57447ad92a386d27...", created_at: "2021-04-17 19:44:28", updated_at: "2021-04-17 19:44:28">

Looks correct. Now let's also make sure we can still authenticate with our API key's token, and we also want to assert that we're not leaking our token_digest in the list of serialized API keys.

$ curl -v -X GET http://localhost:3000/api-keys \
-H 'Authorization: Bearer 4ff169e0c3e42fd0b60af4f12abae086'
# < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
# [
# {
# "id": 3,
# "bearer_id": 1,
# "bearer_type": "User",
# "created_at": "2021-04-17T19:44:28.975Z",
# "updated_at": "2021-04-17T19:44:28.975Z"
# }
# ]

And once again, things look good. But we have a new problem. Since we can no longer read the tokens of other API keys, we're unable to delete them using our existing API key deletion endpoint. To fix this issue, let's rework our "logout" endpoint.

Let's open up our routes.rb file and make a quick edit (and in the process, we get to make our endpoints more Rails-y with resources):

Rails.application.routes.draw do
- post '/api-keys', to: 'api_keys#create'
- delete '/api-keys', to: 'api_keys#destroy'
- get '/api-keys', to: 'api_keys#index'
+ resources :api_keys, path: 'api-keys', only: %i[index create destroy]
end

And we'll also want to update our controller to revoke API keys by ID, rather than simply revoking the current_api_key:

class ApiKeysController < ApplicationController
include ApiKeyAuthenticatable
 
- # Require API key authentication for index
- prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key!, only: [:index]
+ # Require API key authentication
+ prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key!, only: %i[index destroy]
- 
- # Optional API key authentication for logout
- prepend_before_action :authenticate_with_api_key, only: [:destroy]
 
def index
render json: current_bearer.api_keys
end
 
def create
authenticate_with_http_basic do |email, password|
user = User.find_by email: email
 
if user&.authenticate(password)
api_key = user.api_keys.create! token: SecureRandom.hex
 
render json: api_key, status: :created and return
end
end
 
render status: :unauthorized
end
 
def destroy
+ api_key = current_bearer.api_keys.find(params[:id])
+ 
- current_api_key&.destroy
+ api_key.destroy
end
end

And voila! This patch does add a bit of complexity to the API key model, but it resolves critical vulnerabilities in the original implementation. You can view the full example app on GitHub.

Thanks to /u/stouset for the report.


If you find any errors in my code, or if you can think of ways to improve things, ping me via Twitter.